Expert Buried Via PCB Manufacturing Solutions – Enhance Your PCB Design

Buried Via PCB

In a multi-layer PCB, buried vias are plated connections between the inner layers that are not visible on the outside layers. Similar to a typical two-layer PCB or even a multi-layer plated through-hole PCB, buried vias are made by drilling and copper plating the inner layer core (pairs) of a multi-layer PCB.

The buried vias might give the board more area and possibilities because many PCB boards are tiny and have limited space. For example, the buried vias will aid in clearing space on the board’s surface without interfering with the upper or bottom layers’ surface components or traces. Although they can be utilized with a wide variety of PCBs, blind and buried vias are typically employed with high-density interconnect PCBs or HDIs. Because they can provide increased layer density and improved power delivery, HDIs are widely used.

It will also assist in keeping the board lighter and smaller by using concealed vias, which is quite beneficial when constructing electronics. They are frequently found in cellphones, tablets, computers, medical equipment, and other comparable compact electronics.

For individuals in need, the buried vias can be useful, but they can also raise the PCB’s cost. This is because adding them to the board will involve additional labour in addition to the testing and production that will be necessary. This means that in order to have a fantastic board that is tight and effective, you should only utilize them when absolutely essential.

The proper addition of buried vias to the PCB is crucial, which makes selecting the right manufacturer crucial. At Advanced Circuits, PCB runner offer dependable PCB assembly and fabrication that satisfies your requirements.

Our expansive printed circuit board manufacturing plant employs cutting-edge machinery and processes to deliver quality and reliability. Before any order is put into production, it is reviewed by a free engineering file reviewer. This makes it easier to verify that the boards are made correctly and function. Unusable boards are something that nobody likes to get. Time and money would be squandered.

A reliable manufacturer is also aware of how crucial it is that you receive your boards on schedule. We can quickly turn around PCBs with buried and blind vias for you, in addition to expedited shipment.

It’s important to know how much the order will cost you when selecting a manufacturer. We provide quick quotations for PCBs.

The appropriate company can make it simple and quick to receive the PCBs you need, even if they contain blind and buried vias. Superior customer service, dependable goods, and top-notch production are all provided by Advanced Circuits.

Buried via PCB in PCB manufacturing services

PCB Runner’s Buried Via Manufacturing Capabilities

In the electronics manufacturing sector, PCB Runner, a seasoned provider of expert PCB creation services, has over ten years of experience. The majority of the businesses we manufacture PCBs for are global in scope and have been with us since the beginning. We work hard to keep our clients’ satisfaction levels at or above 99%, and we take pride in offering the best service available.

We are able to adapt to our client’s changing needs because of our flexibility. Because we are adaptable, we can work with the most precise, efficient, and economical design and manufacturing methods.

As the PCB surface is smaller and the topography is more compact, building HDI PCBs requires a PCB Runner to place components on the PCB with greater accuracy. With over ten years of expertise, PCB Runner’s workforce is knowledgeable and skilled enough to manage the assembly of HDI PCBs.

With our HDI boards, we provide buried vias. All of the micro vias in our HDI boards are drilled using lasers. We can create extremely tiny vias with laser drilling that are not possible with traditional mechanical drills. In addition, micro-vias are more dependable than standard vias.

PCB Runner offers HDI PCBs

High-density interconnects are necessary for today’s miniature electronic assembly (HDI). The miniaturization properties and advantages of HDI are necessary for SMT technology to provide the following:

Greater Tolerances

  • Traces and pads spaced densely apart
  • Several Layers on a Single PCB with Microvias Allow Signals to Pass Through
  • HDI assists with the shrinking sizes of SMT components and provides a notable reduction in size and weight. You simply cannot function without HDI technology when you use a lot of flip chips and BGAs.

Please contact PCB Runner if you have any needs for HDI PCBs; our professionals can assist you with the project’s design and development.

Buried Via PCB Design and Manufacturing Process

Design Recommendations for Buried and Blind vias:

Both buried and blind vias have unique design guidelines. The same is covered in depth in the section that follows.

Defining specifications:

explicit specifications at an early stage of the design process might help prevent mistakes like inflexible design patterns later on. Aspect ratio, depth, and route diameter are important parameters. The ratio of the via’s diameter to depth is known as the aspect ratio. The aspect ratio for buried and blind vias should be between 0.8 and 1.0.

Set Vias Up in a Grid:

By arranging the vias on a grid, you can make sure they are evenly spaced apart and don’t go too near to one another. Based on the pitch of the components that are utilized on the board, the grid spacing should be selected.

Maintaining  minimum Annular Ring:

The copper pad that surrounds the via and provides the electrical connection is the annular ring. The minimum annular ring size for buried and blind vias is 0.1 mm.

Placing Vias at a distance:

Signal noise and electrical interference can result from placing vias too close to one another. Blind and buried vias need to be separated by at least 0.2 mm.

Placing vias away from the board edge:

Drilling vias close to the board edge may result in manufacturing issues. Place the vias at least one millimetre from the edge of the board.

Observe the Fabrication Guidelines:

When fabricating PCBs, blind and buried vias call for extra processing stages. To guarantee the successful construction of the PCB, it is crucial to adhere to the fabrication requirements supplied by the manufacturer.

Test Prototype PCBs:

Early on in the process, testing prototype PCBs can assist in identifying design or fabrication issues. Before committing to a complete manufacturing run, it is advised to test a few prototype PCBs.

PCB Technology: A Method for Buried Vias.

The following sophisticated PCB fabrication methods allow for the creation of buried and blind vias:

The process of sequential lamination

Pre-formed vias positioned in between the layers are used to laminate each internal layer together. permits a considerable deal of flexibility in the route structures.

Ablation using Laser

When necessary, conformal dielectric coatings can be selectively ablated by lasers to open blind or buried via connections.

Etching with Plasma

Selective exposure of metal pads to open blind vias can be achieved by plasma etching through thin dielectric layers.

Image Tenting

Selective tenting over vias is made possible by photo-imageable dielectric layers, which only leave openings where it is desired to have buried or blind vias.

When using buried vias, any of these processes calls for certain PCB facilities and protocols. As such, the expenses are higher than those of regular multilayer boards.

You should search for the following six quality control areas in a PCB CM:

  • IPC accreditation: Your board’s production technicians must to be qualified in soldering, reworking, and other assembly tasks. 
  • Component knowledge: To ensure that your board is constructed using the best parts, the CM should have engineering procedures and checks in place.
  • Processes Control: System and assembly methods that are documented are essential to preserving manufacturing process uniformity.
  • Verifications of assembly: Solder joints on assembled boards should be checked both before and after soldering.
  •  Test and Inspection: Every task must be continuously confirmed using a variety of automated and manual inspection methods.
  • Functional workstation: Complex printed circuit board assemblies must be constructed on an orderly and well-maintained assembly line that spans the factory and includes each individual workstation.

Applications of Buried Via PCB

Uses for PCB High-Density Buried Via Interconnects

High-density interconnect (HDI) applications frequently use buried via PCBs because of their capacity to minimize PCB size, conserve space, and enhance functionality. Buried vias are a perfect way to achieve compact designs because HDI PCBs need more connections in smaller spaces. Devices like computers, tablets, and smartphones are a few instances of HDI applications. 

Equipment for Telecommunications

High-speed performance and signal integrity are essential for telecom equipment. Since PCBs can efficiently minimize signal reflection, reduce interference, and enhance signal routing, they are well-suited for telecommunications systems, including base stations, switches, and routers. Buried via PCBs creates an environment that is favorable for these requirements.

Medical Equipment

Medical equipment frequently needs to be extremely precise and reliable. These needs are met in part by PCBs that are buried, which provide more sophisticated routing, enhance electrical performance, and increase component density. Medical devices such as defibrillators, pacemakers, and diagnostic imaging equipment can benefit from being buried via PCBs.

PCB Runner Quality Control Commitment

Strict Quality Control

At PCB Runner, we recognize the value that PCB functionality and quality have for our clients. For this reason, we incorporate quality-oriented concepts throughout every stage of the assembly and production of PCBs. We are still dedicated to conducting all PCB-related activity in accordance with recognized worldwide quality standards.

We ensure that every one of our assembled and bare PCBs meets or surpasses the exact specifications provided by our customers. Our reputation for excellent quality, timely delivery, and competitive pricing is attested to by our clientele.

Our products are guaranteed to be of the highest quality and dependability thanks to our strict manufacturing procedures. International standards like ISO9001 are met by us, and we are eligible for IPC Classes 2, 3, and 3A.

Why Opt for PCB Runner?

There are various benefits to selecting PCB Runner as your printed circuit board maker. We provide quick turnaround times on all kinds of high-quality PCB services. We put every PCB through quality and reliability testing.

Kindly visit our website to acquire an estimate for any bespoke circuit board you may need.

Certifications and Registrations for PCB Runners


We withhold a number of PCB certifications as a symbol of our dedication to the quality management system, demonstrating our steadfast commitment to upholding standards of quality.

Use the icons below to browse through our official certifications.

The 2015 ISO 9001 standard

ISO 14001:2015

ISO 13485:2016

Our engineers are all certified IPC A-610 personnel. Please get in touch with us if you would like more information.

Advantages of choosing PCB Runner:

For the production and assembly of fully functional printed circuit boards, PCB Runner is the recommended option. The diversity and adaptability of the solutions we provide are preferred by our clients. We provide every kind of printed circuit board you need, ranging from single-layer to multi-layer, rigid boards, rigid-flex boards, and HDI boards. No matter the quantity of your purchase, we can handle boards of any form or size that you require.

The fact that PCB Runner has specialists for every step of PCB assembly and manufacturing is by far our greatest asset. We provide PCB fabrication and assembly services that are full turnkey, partial turnkey, and full feature. To put it briefly, we provide a comprehensive end-to-end solution for your projects. From design and manufacturing to assembly, testing, packing, and shipping, our professionals will be at your side every step of the way.

You will quickly see the benefits of working with PCB Runner for your PCB fabrication and assembly since they are a one-stop shop, saving you the trouble of contacting multiple businesses to finish your project.

Our Proficiency

  • PCB Panels
  • Layer Stackup, Blind, and Buried
  • Lead-Free
  • Soldering Through Laser
  • Micro Via
  • via in Pad

Full-featured PCB Manufacturing and Assembly Capabilities are offered by  PCB Runner

  • Stiff PCBs
  • Flexible PCBs
  • PCBs that are rigid-flexible
  • PCBs using High Density Interconnect (HDI)
  • PCBs with many layers

Read More: Harnessing the Power of Effective PCB Routing: Strategies, Best Practices, and Future Trends

Base Materials for PCBs

What we can offer you is:

  • PCBs at High Temperatures
  • PCBs that comply with RoHS regulations
  • PCBs with High-Frequency RF
  • Fast Digital PCBs
  • Prototype PCB Assembly, PCB Services, and PCB Assembly
  • Sources for Components: Low Volume, High Volume, Partial Turnkey, and Full Turnkey PCB Assembly

PCB Runner offers custom Blind & buried via PCB manufacturing for all industries and critical design requirements. Our highly experienced engineers are there to point out critical manufacturing issues by performing DFM & DFA twice. Please submit your Gerber/ODB++ files to our email at or

Schematic & BOM Formation

Mastering PCB Design: From Schematic to BOM and Production – A Comprehensive Guide by PCB Runner

A consistent visual depiction of a circuit can be found in a schematic diagram of a circuit board. One of the most important aspects of PCB design is the schematic diagram. A sample circuit board schematic can show how different electronic components are connected. This could be the first action in a device’s strategy. Earlier, circuit charts were drawn by designers on paper. They have started using PCB plan instruments, which simplify the plan preparation process. A well-drawn PCB schematic diagram can significantly reduce the need for later PCB rework.

Creating a Clear and Accurate Schematic 

Follow conventional schematic guidelines to create an efficient schematic design.

Page size selection:

The majority of design programs include many page sizes. Depending on how much their circuit plan is estimated, the designer might choose it. 

Page naming accord:

The schematic’s logical blocks are divided into pages. Pages are arranged alphabetically by us. Most designers edit the history instead of block charts to save time. When other designers attempt to comprehend the schematic diagrams, they are accommodating. The majority of the organizations participating followed each of these guidelines and customs. 

Grid Settings

The tool needs some reference, but the designers are not immediately required to provide this. Designers can more accurately reference and connect parts when they use a grid. Throughout the examination, circuit components need to be continuously connected to the grid and open to network probing.
Page title bar: The page title bar completes all the required information and is situated in the schematic page’s footer. (Page size, modification date, record number, name and purpose of the circuit, and disclaimer from the manufacturer).
Remarks: The circuit’s relevant annotations must be written by the designers. Messages can be written on pages of schematic drawings or stand-alone papers. Annotations for intricate patterns are frequently given on different pages. Jumper states and PCB layout limitations and guidelines are a few of the remarks.

Revision history:

 Revision history documents alterations made to the layout. The date, a summary of the modifications, the names of the authors and reviewers, and the review comments are all included in the document. Usually, the main or last page of the schematic layout contains the revision history.  Directory of schematic documents: This directory contains a list of the subjects covered in the schematic documentation. This website makes it simple for designers to locate particular modules inside a complex design. If the operation is modest and has a straightforward design, you can omit it.  

Block diagram: 

Block diagrams significantly aid reviewers in understanding the design for a review by speaking to various modules within the plan and flag flow.

Network label agreement: 

The schematic is meant to simplify the circuit for designers to understand. The common symbols of an integrated circuit (IC) in PCB design can be reduced when creating a schematic by minimizing the number of unnecessary network connections. Instead of dragging a bunch of networks across the screen, the designer refers to the well-organized title of a specific stick that is connected to a trap on another device. The names of these pins will be the same. The readability of the schematic diagram is increased by assuming that a pin with the same name is connected. When a network is directly connected to another IC on the same page, network naming is not necessary. But you must give it a name if you wish to link the network to an IC on a different page.

Design rules checking: 

A clever CAD function called Design Rule Checking (DRC) verifies the logical and physical integrity of a design. The online check can be completed at plan time and is based on all empowered plan rules.
Verification of net tables: 

Create the netlist as soon as the schematic design is finished and the layout is imported. There are two possible extensions for net table files:mnl and.txt. While the.txt file shows every electrical connection between components, the.mnl files are machine-readable. To prevent design flaws, it is advised that the network be manually verified.

Bill of Materials

BOM generation is currently a crucial capability offered by the CAD tool. If the designer provides all inputs in the tool when building or importing parts from the library, you can generate a complete and sufficient BOM. The manufacturing part number (MPN), package, supplier name, and supplier part number are among the details that can be found on the bill of materials. It is advised to provide all pertinent data while creating symbols.

Beginning with circuit boards, the Bill of Materials, or BOM, is an essential component of any electronic device’s design and manufacturing process. The project might require adjustments in the absence of a comprehensive BOM, which could delay production. As such, one of the most important factors in PCB production is the BOM.

Most of the time, when a customer submits an order, manufacturers request that they upload their BOM list. Nonetheless, it is essential to understand the data that a BOM should contain while designing one. The required information should also be included in the bill of materials. BOMs provide several advantages to consumers and electronic manufacturers alike. Thus, before creating one, it’s critical to comprehend what a bill of materials comprises.

A Bill of Materials: What Is It?  

A list of materials, parts, and assemblies needed for product manufacturing is called the bill of materials. Production depends on the data in the bill of materials. Consequently, to produce a product, producers must rely on these bits of information. The BOM needs to be extremely precise and well-detailed. The BOM determines a production’s level of success. 

BOMs are essential for producers as well as customers. When a customer orders circuit boards, for example, it is helpful for them to express their needs. To manufacture the circuit board or electronics according to the customer’s requirements, the PCB assembler uses this information. The BIOM can also be used as an ingredient list when producing a product. Creating a BOM is the first step in the production process for all manufacturers. This is so because the product’s basic specifications are provided by the BOM. BOM is utilized by several production sectors in addition to the electronics industry. As the phases progress, the BOM also improves production.

Electronic components list with highlighted item for a momentary push button switch.

How to make clear and well-organized schematics Space

You must choose how to use the blank space that appears when you first open a new schematic. It relies on several variables, including the project’s size and complexity, target audience, any standards you must adhere to, and the project’s expected life cycle. Additionally, it depends on whether or not you need to print the schematic.
Whether you need more than one sheet or if one will do is the most crucial decision to make. Starting with a single A4 page and switching to an A3 sheet as the project progresses is one method for smaller projects.

The Best Component Arrangement for Understanding and Clarity  

Logic and Intuition-Based Component Arrangement

 To Reduce Signal Crossings and Improve Flow  

 Making Explicit and Brief Connections Selecting Line Styles and Thickness that are Correct Steer clear of overlapping and unclear connections Assigning Names, Nodes, and Component Labels  

Component Labeling: 

Every element in the schematic diagram needs to have a label that corresponds to its reference designator. Alphanumeric identifiers known as reference designators are used to identify each component separately. It is important to label the components suitably once the schematic design has been constructed and they are each represented by a symbol. The circuit design is made clearer and easier to understand by labeling parts, nodes, and signal names. 

Labeling Nodes:

 In a circuit, nodes are the locations of connection between various components. Voltage nodes (e.g., Vcc for positive power supply, GND for ground), signal nodes (e.g., IN for input, OUT for output), and particular node labels pertinent to the circuit design are examples of common node labels. Troubleshooting and circuit analysis are made easier by labeling nodes. 

Labeling Signal labels:

 It’s important to give the right labels to the signals in the schematic diagram in addition to labeling the components and nodes.

The purpose or function of a specific electrical or electronic signal inside the circuit is described by its signal name. “CLK” for clock signals, “DATA” for data signals, “RESET” for reset signals, and “ENABLE” for enable signals are a few instances of signal names.  Examining and confirming the schematic diagram. Performing Extensive Quality Inspections to Verify Completeness and Accuracy  Getting Input from Experts or Peers to Verify.

Guidelines for Component Selection  

Comprehending Component requirements: 

To start, make sure you fully comprehend the mechanical and electrical requirements of the components you require. Temperature tolerances, package sizes, voltage and current ratings, and package dimensions are important factors.  

Component Availability: 

Take lead times and component availability into account. To avoid project delays, make sure that the selected components are easily obtained from vendors.

Cost vs Performance: 

Aim for a balance between the cost and performance of the components. Although cost control is crucial, sacrificing component quality might result in reliability problems.  

Environmental Considerations: 

Choose components that can survive harsh circumstances, such as high humidity or extreme temperatures, if your PCB will be operating in these kinds of settings. 

Verify that the components are compatible with the footprint libraries and PCB design tools of your choice.


Consider a component’s long-term availability, particularly if your project calls for lengthy production cycles.

Validation of Design and Simulation  

Design Validation: 

Verify the functionality, signal integrity, and thermal performance of the design using simulations and studies.  Iterative Refinement: Fix any problems found during validation and make the required changes to the design.

Design Records  

Design File Creation: Produce thorough design files that include manufacturing comments, assembly drawings, bill of materials (BOM), and Gerber files. The files known as manufacturing data, which include copper layers, solder masks, and other components, are what will be used to construct the etched base laminate on your PCB. The exported data in these files was produced from your CAD designs. It’s critical to maintain track of the versions of your files and ensure that the proper version of your CAD design is linked to each file by a clear naming convention.

It is possible, if challenging, to reverse engineer your manufacturing data from an existing PCB. To ensure that you’ll be able to have the source documentation to quickly build your files for manufacturing, it’s critical to keep your design files, record revisions, and back up your data. Cooperation: To ensure efficient production, distribute design documentation among team members, fabricators, and assemblers.

The Importance of Software for PCB Design  

Your PCB design is created on a digital canvas using PCB design software. It gives designers the ability to precisely route traces, layout components, and build schematics.  Your ability to collaborate, design efficiency, and the quality of the finished project are all impacted by the software you choose.

Advice on Which PCB Design Software to Choose  

Selecting the appropriate PCB design software should be in line with your level of experience and the demands of your particular project. Here are some pointers to think about:  

Evaluate the level of difficulty involved in your project. Simple designs can be satisfied with inexpensive, user-friendly software. High-end software with sophisticated functionality could be needed for complex undertakings.

Learning Curve: Take your experience with PCB design software into account. While some programs offer advanced features but may have a longer learning curve for beginners, others may be more user-friendly.

Compatibility: Verify that the program you select can import and export the required file types and is compatible with your operating system.  

Collaboration: Choose software that allows for both version control and real-time collaboration if you’re working in a group.  

Cost: Consider the licensing, upkeep, and extra features while evaluating the software’s cost structure. Remember your financial limitations.  

Support and communities: Look into the resources, forums, and user communities that are available to help you when you run into problems.  

Future Scalability: Consider if the program can grow with the project in the future and adapt to changing design specifications.

Trial Period: A lot of software vendors provide free trials. Use these to see if the software is appropriate for the task at hand.  A crucial first step in making sure your PCB design project is successful is selecting the appropriate PCB design software. You may make an informed decision that will enable you to implement your PCB design ideas successfully and efficiently by considering the particular requirements of your project, your degree of experience, and your financial constraints.

Common Software Tools for PCB Design  

A wide variety of PCB design software solutions are available to meet different design needs and user preferences. Among the software tools that are most frequently used are:  Altium Designer: Preferred by expert PCB designers, Altium Designer is renowned for its intuitive UI and robust features. It has tools for capturing schematics, arranging components, and collaborating in real-time. 

Eagle: Autodesk’s Eagle is well-known for being both inexpensive and easily accessible. With a large library of components, it’s appropriate for novices as well as enthusiasts.

KiCad: This open-source program is well-liked for its wealth of capabilities, which make it an affordable alternative for novices and experts alike. 

Cadence Allegro: Because of its excellent routing and seamless connection with other design tools, this dependable program is used.  

OrCAD: OrCAD provides a full range of tools for PCB design, such as simulation, PCB layout, and schematic capture.
Siemens’ PADS offers a variety of design functionalities and is appropriate for small and medium-sized enterprises. 

Best Practices for Schematic Capture for Easily Read Schematics  

Schematics must be simple to read and comprehend by users in addition to having intelligent components and connectivity features. Layout engineers, component engineers, manufacturing staff, test technicians, and field repair specialists will all use them. They must so explain in detail what their circuitry is doing. When designing a schematic that will be helpful to everyone, keep the following points in mind:

Parts Arrangement: Try to arrange the parts in a clean, well-organized manner. Resistors and other parts should be arranged in rows with enough room between them for text and nets. People farther down the line may find it more difficult to quickly discover a certain element if components are placed on a schematic haphazardly.

Signal pathways: The order of components should be based on their respective signal pathways. The path must begin from the driver pin, follow a logical flow through the circuit, and terminate at the end. This not only improves the design of your schematic and frees up space for more circuitry, but it also makes the circuit easier to grasp for the layout team to work with.  

Give Yourself Room to Grow: Your schematic may expand when new features and improvements are introduced, even though it may shrink in size initially. It is wise to allow space for the addition of more circuitry as needed because of this. If nothing else, you’ll probably adjust and revise as you create, and having more space makes it much simpler to move parts and nets around.

Net Connectivity: Just like with component placement, everyone’s work will be much easier if the nets flow in a tidy and ordered manner. Buses ought to be clustered together wherever feasible. Seeing how the busses are arranged and the flow of the signal routes will be especially helpful to the layout team when they are floor-planning the PCB layout.

Don’t Forget the Details: Your schematic isn’t finished when all the parts are arranged and routed together. To make the reference designators readable, they must be shifted and rotated. This also applies to net and bus names, which for readability purposes should be aligned in the same direction as their wires. Dates, other firm information, and board names and numbers must be entered into title blocks. Finally, remember to include any special notes or design information that will aid in the layout, production, and repair of those who utilize the schematic.

Common mistakes during BOM creation

Reason for error: Failure to include all required parts in a Bill of Materials (BOM) is a frequent error. This error may be the result of carelessness or insufficient detail in the BOM creation procedure.  Examples: Let’s say a company is making complicated electronic equipment that needs a variety of screws, but the BOM just lists a small number of them. In that scenario, as they wait for the missing screws to arrive, the manufacturer might have to stop manufacturing or postpone shipping. As an alternative, the device might not function properly during testing or usage because the maker used the wrong kind of screws.

How to avoid: Manufacturers should create their BOMs methodically to prevent making this error. This process should begin with a thorough analysis of the product design to determine all the components and materials that are required. To detect any omissions or mistakes, it is crucial to make sure that the BOM is examined by some people, such as engineers, buying managers, and production supervisors. Manufacturers should also routinely update their BOMs to account for modifications to component availability or product design. Ultimately, to guarantee that any modifications to the BOM are accurately recorded and shared with all parties involved, manufacturers must put in place a thorough change management procedure.

Not indicating the precise number of pieces

Neglecting to include the correct number of pieces in the Bill of Materials (BOM) is another typical error. Errors in the conversion between units of measure or inaccurate estimates about the quantity of parts required can result in this issue. As an illustration, let’s say a company has to make 100 units of a product but orders 10 units of a crucial component by mistake rather than 100. Then, there could be a delay or stop to the production process, which would mean lower profits and higher expenses. Alternatively, let’s say a manufacturer orders the incorrect quantity of a component, causing delays in manufacturing or material waste, because they specified the incorrect unit of measurement.

How to stay away from: Manufacturers should be very careful when indicating the right number of pieces in their BOMs to prevent making this error. To make sure the values are correct, they should verify all computations and conversions between units of measurement again, as well as get feedback from a variety of stakeholders. Manufacturers should also put in place a strong quality control procedure to identify any mistakes before they affect production. Lastly, to account for any modifications to manufacturing specifications or product design, manufacturers should constantly review and update their BOMs.

Failing to update the BOM

Justification for the error: Failure to update a Bill of Materials (BOM) regularly is another typical error made when creating one. Manufacturers may make this error by neglecting to take into consideration modifications to the production procedures, material availability, or product design.  As an illustration, let’s say a manufacturer releases a new version of a product, but the BOM that was used to make it isn’t updated to reflect the adjustments. In that instance, misplaced or missing pieces could cause the production process to slow down or stop entirely. Let’s also say that a component that was easily accessible before becomes unavailable, and the BOM isn’t changed to reflect this. Should that be the case, the manufacturer might keep placing orders for the part, which would drive up expenses and cause production delays.

How to stay away from: Manufacturers should set up a procedure for routinely checking and updating their BOMs to prevent making this error. All relevant parties, including as engineers, purchasing managers, and production supervisors, should be included in this process to guarantee that any modifications are carefully considered and recorded. Manufacturers should also have a change management procedure in place to guarantee that any modifications to the BOM are accurately recorded and shared with all relevant parties. Lastly, to account for any modifications to product design, material availability, or production procedures, manufacturers should constantly review and update their BOMs.

not adhering to naming guidelines consistently 

Justification for the error: Using inconsistent naming standards while drafting a Bill of Materials (BOM) is another typical error. When manufacturers refer to the same part or material by different names, it can cause confusion and mistakes during the production process. As an illustration, let’s say a manufacturer calls an item a “bolt” in one area of the BOM and a “screw” in another. Then, during manufacturing, misunderstandings can occur and the wrong parts might be used, which would cause delays, material waste, and a drop in product quality. Let’s further say that a manufacturer refers to the same material under multiple names in various BOM sections.

How to avoid: Manufacturers should make sure that parts and materials have defined naming rules and are utilized consistently throughout the BOM in order to prevent making this error. To lower the possibility of misunderstanding, manufacturers should also include thorough descriptions for each item or substance. Manufacturers should also put in place a thorough inventory management system to precisely track inventory levels and place the right number of material orders. Finally, in order to make sure that naming conventions are current and consistent, manufacturers should periodically examine their BOMs.

Not supplying sufficient supporting documentation  

Justification for the error: Not include enough documentation in a Bill of Materials (BOM) is another typical error. This error might happen when manufacturers don’t supply adequate safety data, assembly instructions, or material specifications to support the production process. As an illustration, let’s say a producer of a sophisticated product fails to include comprehensive assembly instructions. In that instance, laborers might find it difficult to put the product together correctly, which would cause delays in production, material waste, and a drop in product quality. Let’s also say that a producer fails to supply safety data for a hazardous material that is utilized throughout production. Then, there could be a chance for illnesses or injuries in the workforce, which would result in lower output and more expenses.

How to avoid: Manufacturers must supply comprehensive and lucid documentation for each item and material listed in the BOM to prevent this error. Assembly instructions, material specifications, safety data, and any other pertinent data that aids in the production process should all be included in this paperwork. Additionally, manufacturers need to make sure that staff members have easy access to all paperwork and are well-trained to use it. Furthermore, manufacturers must establish a comprehensive quality control procedure to guarantee that all goods fulfill the requisite safety and quality benchmarks. Lastly, to make sure that their BOMs and documentation are correct and up to date, manufacturers should regularly examine them.

Maker Faire Arduino UNO Board – PCB Production Project

Explain The System Block Diagram

Block diagram of an electronic device showcasing the connections and interfaces between a microcontroller and various components such as sensors, communication modules, display, gps, and power management units.

Choose a Production Component.

The intended uses and intended retail price of your device will determine the microchips, sensors, displays, and connectors to use in its creation. You will then be able to draft a Bill of Materials (BOM) thanks to this.

Create The Schematic

Using the system block diagram you produced in step 1, generate the schematic circuit diagram.
The schematic includes all the information needed to assemble the electronics, including information on how each part is related to the others.  

There will be a final Bill of Materials (BOM) that includes information on each electronic component.

Designing a multivibrator

a diagram of a circuit board

Placing the Multivibrator Parts

The Multivibrator circuit will be assembled using components that were obtained from Manufacturer Part Search using the Components panel. The schematic ought to resemble the picture below when the components have been assembled.

a diagram of electrical components

Netlabels and wiring 

You can use Net Labels to assign names to significant nets in the design, making it easier to find them. As indicated below, you will identify the 12V and GND nets in the multivibrator circuit.

a diagram of a circuit

Setting Up the Bill of Materials

In the end, comprehensive supply chain data must be included for each component used in the design. You can add this information in an Active BOM (*.BomDoc) at any time during the design cycle, instead of having to add it to each design component or as a post-process in an Excel spreadsheet.

a screenshot of a computer


Through the use of standardized symbols to express component connectivity and interactions, circuit schematic diagrams offer a fundamental depiction of electronic systems. creating schematics. The bill of materials is essentially the lifeblood that synchronizes the whole manifestation of a complicated PCB assembly from first conceptions into a tangible product; it is much more than just an ordinary parts list. It offers best practices and advice for producing a high-quality design in addition to covering the fundamentals of schematic capture and the regulations that must be adhered to throughout PCB routing. The industry standard tools and software for schematic design are also covered in the guide. Whether you are new to PCB design or looking to advance your knowledge, this guide offers helpful advice and information for creating printed circuit boards of the highest caliber.

PCB Runner team has an experienced team of development & simulations team which can make schematics & BOM for customer base don input & output requirements. Feel free to reach out to our team at &

pcb prepregs

Core/Prepreg Thickness

Understanding PCB Cores and Prepregs: Properties, Selection, and Future Trends


In essence, PCB cores are one or more prepreg laminates that have been heated, pressed, hardened, and cured. Copper foil is applied on both sides of the core.  The PCB’s isolating substance is called Prepreg Core. Prepreg serves as both a multipurpose inner conduction medium for PCBs and a binding agent. A resin is infused into prepreg material; the resin is not cured but toughened. Consider the prepreg to be the binding agent that keeps the main components together. A prepreg laminate will start to bond to the neighboring layers when two cores are layered on each side then heated and compressed. The crosslinking process of the hardened resin gradually cures it, bringing its final material qualities closer to those of the core layers.

There is a glass weaving in the resin substance. Using a loom, the weave can be made tight (7628 prepreg, for example) or loose (1080 prepreg, for example) during production. The final product’s electromagnetic properties (dispersion, losses, and any fiber weave effects observed by signals in the board) are determined by the gaps and homogeneity of the glass weave.

Prepreg Thickness

Prepreg in PCBs 

Insulation is the primary function of prepreg in PCB construction. It is a layer of building material that sits between the inner core and the copper surface of a board. Its function is to operate as a dielectric substance between these layers to stop current flow. It is frequently referred to as a binding substance and is utilized to help strengthen a board because of the way it is linked between these layers. A prepreg layer can be modified in a variety of ways by the client, such as adding chemicals and catalysts to make it more conductive or to boost insulation.

Since prepreg is made of fiberglass cloth coated in a resin reserve, it is simple to attach to core material. Glass strands are knitted together to create a glass tissue, which is then given time to partially dry. It acquires an adhesive characteristic when it is pasted over the core substance. Designers monitor the material’s volume friction prior to adhesion because it will ultimately decide the prepreg layer’s final characteristics. This is the point at which manufacturers modify it to satisfy client specifications. Thankfully, this versatility implies that a wide range of prepreg materials can be found to satisfy practically any requirement. It’s a terrific extra skill because of its easy application and mastery. Additionally, the weight of a board can be decreased by adding a prepreg layer, which makes board design downsizing easier.  

PCB core 

Both single-sided and double-sided PCBs are built using a core. The base upon which we build the entire board is known as the core material. It’s a solid plate that you may coat with copper (and Prepreg for insulation) on one or both sides.  An FR-4 (Flame Retardant) mixture of components, including copper traces and titanium epoxy laminates, make up a core. It is woven with fiberglass fabric to produce a solid surface that resists fire. After that, copper is applied on both sides of it to create the PCB’s foundational material. By itself, it produces a stable, pliable surface that can be used to assemble parts. Its strength significantly rises with a prepreg layer without adding a lot of extra weight. To build multilayer PCBs, the majority of electronic manufacturing services mix the two.

Properties of PCB Prepregs

Qualitative characteristics in prepregs for superior PCBs:  

Dielectric Constant: Low dissipation factor and stable dielectric constant are necessary for high frequency performance. 3.5–5 values are normal for prepregs made of glass fiber and epoxy.  

Low Z-axis shrinkage and expansion during temperature cycling prevents via failures and is a sign of dimensional stability. X-Y shrinking often less than 0.5%.  

Bond Strength: Excellent resistance to delamination and strong adherence to prepreg layers and copper foils. Strength of bond > 2.5 N/mm.  

Decomposition Temperature: A high Td above 300°C minimizes charring problems and indicates stable thermal performance.

Moisture Absorption: Low affinity for moisture guards against vapor pressure-related reliability problems and electrical leakage. Uptake standard <0.5%.  

Flow and Filler: Sufficient resin flow to cover defects, but not too much to prevent wire shorts. Filler loading ranges from 15% to 40%.  

High level of resistance to burning, igniting, and producing smoke is known as flame retardancy. Material certified UL 94 V-0.

Properties of PCB core

1) Thermal characteristics  

The amount of heat that a substrate can tolerate is determined by its thermal property. The whole PCB’s heat tolerance level is determined by the substrate’s heat tolerance levels. Furthermore, the PCB’s heat conduction levels are determined by its thermal characteristics. 

Glass Transition Temperature (Tg): 

Temperatures over a specific threshold cause a PCB substrate to soften. After being taken out of the heat, the substrate hardens back to its original state. The glass transition temperature (Tg), expressed in degrees Celsius, is the range at which a substrate can undergo this transformation. 

Decomposition Temperature (Td): 

A PCB substrate will break down if it is subjected to temperatures over a particular point. The PCB loses five percent or more of its total mass throughout this procedure. Decomposition temperature (Td), expressed in degrees Celsius, is the range of temperatures where this process takes place.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE): 

The CTE of a PCB is the measure of its rate of expansion. Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of a substrate’s CTE, which increases when the material is exposed to temperatures over its Tg. Generally speaking, a substrate will have a higher CTE than a copper layer.

Thermal Conductivity (k): 

A PCB’s capacity to conduct heat is measured in watts per square inch. The PCB’s capacity to transfer heat is closely correlated with a material’s thermal conductivity. The amount of heat transfer will be low if the k-level is low, and vice versa. At Kelvin (K), thermal conductivity rates are expressed in watts per meter (W/M).Many dielectric materials have a thermal conductivity range of 0.3 to 6 W/mk. In contrast, the k-level of copper is 386 W/M-ºC. As a result, in a PCB, the copper layer transfers heat more quickly than the dielectric.

pcb prepregs

2) Electrical Characteristics  

The electrical conduction in the PCB is one of the substrate’s electrical properties. Signal propagation speed between components is determined by electrical characteristics. The electrical characteristics of a PCB substrate impact and define several aspects such as bandwidth and signal transmission speed.

Dielectric Constant or Relative Permittivity (Er or Dk): 

Impedance and signal integrity are two of the key elements that affect a dielectric constant’s electrical performance. A PCB material’s relative permittivity (Dk), also known as its dielectric constant (Er), typically ranges from 3.5 to 5.5. 

Tan δ or Df, the Dielectric Loss Tangent or Dissipation Factor: 

 indicates how much less power a material loses when its loss tangent is small. Materials used in printed circuit boards typically have a dielectric loss tangent (Tan δ) between 0.02 and 0.001.Volume Resistivity (ρ): A dielectric material’s volume resistance (ρ) is its resistance to insulation or electricity. High resistance PCB material will not likely facilitate electric charges. Ohm-meters (Ω-m) and ohm-centimeters (Ω-cm) are measures used to determine how resistive a certain dielectric is. A printed circuit board’s material needs to have high resistivity, ideally between 103 and 1010 Megaohm-centimeters, just like all other dielectric insulators do.

Surface Resistivity (ρS): Surface resistivity (ρS) is the resistance of a dielectric medium to insulation and electricity. Similar to the ρ level of a material, the ρS needs to be high, ideally between 103 and 109 cMegaohms per square. Just like ρ, moisture and severe temperatures can affect a material’s ρS level.  

Electrical Potency:

 Electrical strength, expressed in Volts/mil, is a dielectric material’s capacity to withstand an electrical breakdown over a printed circuit board’s Z direction. The electrical strength of the majority of PCB materials ranges from 800 V/mil to 1500 V/mil.

Chemical characteristics 

Chemical attributes include any aspect of a PCB substrate’s chemical makeup. This describes the components of the PCB substrate’s chemical makeup. The toughness of a PCB is determined by its chemical makeup.

Flammability Specs (UL94):
The Standard for Safety of Flammability of Plastic Materials for Parts in Devices and Appliances (UL94) ranks the flame-retardant qualities of plastics, sometimes referred to as plastics flammability, from highest to lowest. UL94’s PCB material standards stipulate that specimens must not burn with blazing combustion for more than 10 seconds. A collection of five specimens cannot burn together with blazing combustion for more than 50 seconds.

Moisture Absorption:
The ability of a dielectric material to tolerate being submerged in liquid is known as moisture absorption. The moisture absorption values of most PCB materials range from 0.01 percent to 0.20 percent.

Methylene Chloride Resistance:
The resistance of a dielectric to methylene chloride absorption is the most direct indicator of a PCB material’s chemical resistance, and it is known as methylene chloride resistance (MCR). The MCR range for dielectrics is typically 0.01 percent to 0.20 percent.

Mechanical characteristics 

A PCB’s mechanical characteristics, such as its substrate’s hardness, plasticity, density, and resistance to corrosion, are used to determine its characteristics. Depending on your PCB’s intended use, the mechanical characteristics play a significant role in selecting the ideal PCB substrate. 

Peel Power:
Peel strength is the ability of the copper and dielectric layers on a printed circuit board to bind. Peel strength is measured on one-ounce-thick copper traces in three different settings during the PCB manufacturing process: after thermal stress, at high temperatures, and after chemical exposure. 

Flexural Strength:
Measured in kilograms per square meter or pounds per square inch, flexural strength refers to a dielectric material’s capacity to withstand physical stress without breaking. A printed circuit board’s flexural strength is evaluated by applying force at the middle, with only the ends supported.

The density of a dielectric material is expressed in terms of grams per cubic centimeter, or g/cc. Alternatively, pounds per cubic inch (lb/in^3) can be used to express PCB density.  

Time to Delamination:
This phrase refers to the length of a dielectric material’s resistance to influences that cause delamination. It establishes the amount of time that a PCB’s layers will remain separated from one another when exposed to temperatures that above a specific threshold. Any PCB material, including fiberglass and laminate, is susceptible to delamination from heat shock or moisture.

Selecting the Right Thickness for Your Project Requirements

Choices for PCB Thickness: 

The total thickness of your PCB is determined by the number of layers on it. While certain applications call for a thinner PCB, others require a thicker one. Thus, there are wide variations in the thickness norms. The combined thickness of the prepreg and core typically ranges from 0.008 to 0.240 inches.  

Conventional PCB Thickness: 

Single-sided, double-sided, and multilayered PCBs are all possible. The standard thickness, 1.57 mm or 0.063 inches, is a holdover from earlier standards. This is a result of the plywood industry’s use of 0.063-inch plywood sheets as substrates for electrical equipment. However, the thickness range that you can choose from now is 0.008-0.240 inches. The advancement of multi-layer PCBs is to blame for this.

Selecting the PCB Thickness: 

Keep in mind that a thicker board has a lower chance of breaking than a thin one when selecting thickness. It is preferable to stay with a thick board unless the application specifies otherwise. When selecting the PCB thickness, the following considerations should be made. 

  1. Weight: Because a thinner board is more brittle, it will break more easily. Therefore, unless the applications call for a thin board, thicker boards are preferred.  
  2. Flexibility: While thinner boards are more pliable than larger ones, they are also more prone to breaking. Thick boards weigh more and have less flexibility.  
  3. Space Requirement: A thicker board is preferable if your device has enough room for a larger PCB; on the other hand, a smaller board will be needed if your device is smaller.  
  4. Components and connections: A specific thickness will also be needed depending on the kind of connectors and components you choose.  
  5. Impedance: The board’s thickness and impedance must be matched. This is so because the dielectric, which aids in impedance control, is essentially the same thickness as the board.

Electrical Conductivity 

The electrical conductivity and signal quality that flow through the PCB are also impacted by its thickness. Because they have less resistance, thicker PCBs can handle higher current levels without overheating or making noise. Conversely, thinner PCBs can produce more noise and distortion, have more resistance, and worsen signal quality, all of which can impair the circuit’s performance.

PCB Thermal Design Factors

To get you started with addressing the thermal considerations in your design, consider the following design guidelines.
As a general rule of thumb, your board should have an area of 15.3 cm², or 2.4 in², each watt dissipated for a 40°C rise in board temperature in order to dissipate 1 watt of power. This demand can be reduced in half (7.7 cm² or 1.2 in² per watt) if the board is exposed to airflow. These numbers presuppose that the board is positioned to allow free airflow around both sides and that the component is thermally linked to a copper plane that reaches to the board’s corners. An external heat sink might be necessary if these power density specifications are too restrictive for your design. Additionally, a temperature rise of 40°C is a decent place to start when it comes to circuit board temperature control.
a. It is recommended practice to arrange power components on a board so that they heat your PCB uniformly whenever there are several power components present. Significant temperature variations along your PCB design prevent your PCB from efficiently transferring thermal energy away from the installed power components. After a design revision is finished, thermal imaging, if provided to the designer, can enable the empirical inspection of your component location.

b. Your PCB will transfer heat energy to the linked copper plane more effectively the more vias you can put beneath your component. Increase the number of vias in contact with your package’s power pads (the sizable, thermally conductive pads of the component) by using array vias.

c. You will need to utilize larger copper weights in designs that dissipate more energy. For power designs, it is advised to start with one ounce of copper.

d. Tracks that run perpendicular to the thermal path away from the power component must not obstruct the pour of copper when using it to dissipate thermal energy away from a component.

e. It should be noted that if a heat sink is required to maintain the system’s temperature within tolerance, its effectiveness will usually be significantly increased if it is positioned so that it is thermally connected to the component’s case.

Usually, this entails mounting the heat sink on the board’s other side from a surface-mounted component. Although it could be tempting to put a heat sink right on top of the component, the plastic case’s thermal resistance will make the heat sink useless. As previously mentioned, packages specifically intended to have heat sinks connected to their “tops” are an exception to this rule.

Mechanical Strength  

Impact resistance, flexural strength, and tensile strength are important mechanical characteristics to consider. The material’s resistance to bending is measured by flexural strength, whereas its tensile strength indicates how well it can tolerate stretching pressures. Conversely, impact resistance assesses the material’s capacity to tolerate shocks or abrupt impacts. The resistance of your board to breaking or deforming under bending load. IPC-6013C stipulates that stiff, flex, and rigid-flex standards must be followed.

Dimensions: Density (g/cm3): the mass per volume of a dielectric

 Time to Delamination: the length of time a PCB’s layers will stay bonded when exposed to temperature changes or moisture; Peel Strength: the resilience of copper layers and dielectrics under thermal and chemical stress.


The kind of material, the size of the board, and the number of layers are the three variables that have the biggest effects on the breakdown of PCB manufacturing costs. The finish and the size of the holes, including these eight, are further considerations that can affect the cost.  

 Selection of Materials 

The cost of a circuit board is always going to depend on the materials that go into it. The FR4 material used to laminate standard PCBs is insufficient for boards intended for high-intensity applications, such those used in the petroleum and aerospace sectors. The selection of materials used affects a PCB’s cost. 

Different materials make up PCBs, and the choice of these materials has an impact on the final cost. The quantity of material used to produce PCBs is also greatly influenced by the size of the circuit board. Costs can be decreased by maximizing the reduction of material utilization. Additionally, when choosing materials, other aspects like mechanical qualities, thermal performance, temperature dependability, and signal performance should be considered.

PCB Dimensions 

 Modifying a PCB’s dimensions and form has a big impact on production costs. The final product will cost more since enlarging the PCB will take more material and time.  As the PCB’s surface area increases, so does its cost, thus you can figure out how much more it will cost for sizes that are larger than the typical ones. It’s crucial to remember that a PCB’s price is determined by both its overall size and the amount of space that each component takes up.

Quantity and Scale: 

The cost per unit of PCBs is directly influenced by the quantity produced. Economies of scale are frequently realized in large-scale production and batch manufacturing, which lowers the total cost per PCB. Prototyping and smaller production runs, however, are typically more expensive because of the lower production volumes.

Supply Chain and Procurement: 

The cost of producing PCBs can be affected by the selection of suppliers, the sourcing of materials, and procurement tactics. Saving money can be achieved by maintaining material quality, choosing reputable suppliers with competitive prices, and streamlining logistics and transportation. Additionally, there can be financial benefits to investigating outsourcing choices and forging solid alliances.

Technological Developments and Market Trends: 

Both might have an impact on the price of producing printed circuit boards. The efficiency and cost of production can be affected by the introduction of new materials, industrial processes, and automation technologies. In order to stay competitive, manufacturers may also be compelled to streamline operations and cut expenses due to price constraints and market rivalry.

Important Technologies for High Density PCBs  Several sophisticated processes for PCB fabrication are necessary to produce the high-density boards that are required today:  

Drilling Using Lasers  

The five mil and smaller via diameters exhibited in HDI are not achievable with mechanical drilling. These tiny vias are precisely and tightly drilled using UV lasers. Along with producing cleaner walls, laser technology also prevents smears and epoxy blockage caused by microscopic particles.  

Minimal Dielectrics  

For high speed HDI boards, standard glass fabric substrates are excessively thick and lossy. The popular low-loss thermoset laminates with dielectric thicknesses as low as 25 μm include Teijin’s Nexus and Panasonic’s Megtron 6. They avoid problems with signal integrity and permit tighter lines or spaces.

Direct  Imaging  

Rather than using a mechanical print-and-etch process, photolithographic techniques are utilized to produce ultra-fine traces smaller than 25 microns. Laser direct imaging is used to expose liquid photoresists in order to precisely define the circuit patterns.  

Buried and Blind Through  

Prior to the outer layers being laminated, blind or buried vias are drilled and plated to enable connections between the inner layers without using up routing space. This gives HDI designs a great deal of routing flexibility.


These are tiny vias drilled using a laser, usually measuring between 50 and 80 μm in diameter. In HDI boards, microvias link neighboring layers without consuming board space.

Assemble layers:

Sequential lamination is used to add more thin dielectric layers on both sides of the core HDI board. In order to reduce congestion and integrate components, these offer additional routing layers. 

 Pitch/Fine Pad SMT  

Fine pitch component packing, with pitches ranging from 0.4 to 0.15 mm, is used to fit more components into smaller spaces. The pad geometries and tolerances required for this must be achieved during the PCB fabrication process.

HDI Board Construction

Three basic HDI board construction styles are utilized: 

  1. Fundamental HDI 

There are four to eight blind via layers in this structure, and microvias connect at least one fine line layer to the top or bottom. Blind vias do not require via stubs because they route across internal layers. Fine pitch SMT components can be integrated using a 25–50 μm finish layer. 

  1. Hard HDI 

Robust HDI boards consist of bulkier sub-assemblies with conventional and blind/buried vias for routing density, sandwiched between very thin core and buildup layers with microvias. Large boards may have several of these sub-assemblies.

     3. HDI for Sequential Lamination

In this case, the core board has six to twelve layers. Next, successive layers of build-up are applied by laminating thin dielectric films ranging from 25 to 60 μm in thickness.  Each layer has stacked vias that create connections between the layers. It is possible to incorporate components in the outer build-up levels. The number of layers, component density, routing congestion, and other design requirements determine which HDI structure is best.

Future Tends:

Technology is always changing, and this is also true in the field of high density PCB design. Future trends to watch out for include the following:  

Future Tends


The need for high density PCBs will only grow as devices get more compact and smaller. In order to fit more components onto smaller boards without compromising durability or functionality, PCB designers will need to get inventive. 

Advanced Materials:

 3D printed circuit boards and flexible PCBs are two new materials that are gaining popularity. These materials have special benefits like greater durability, reduced weight, and enhanced flexibility.

Increasing Automation:

 More PCB design processes are probably going to be automated in the future as artificial intelligence and machine learning continue to grow in popularity. This might result in shorter design durations, fewer mistakes, and more effectiveness.  

Better Testing and Validation: 

With the complexity of high density printed circuit boards growing, it is critical to extensively test and validate designs prior to manufacturing. To make sure that PCBs fulfill the highest requirements for quality and dependability, new methods for testing and validation are being developed.  

 All in all, high density PCB design appears to have a promising future. More advanced automation, new materials, and enhanced testing and validation methods will enable designers to produce PCBs that are more compact, robust, and powerful than in the past.


As this guide has demonstrated, there are some obvious and straightforward distinctions between Prepreg and Core. Overall though, they cooperate to guarantee that your PCB performs at its best. Choosing the correct partner is crucial when deciding between Prepreg and Core. Both require the dexterity of seasoned pros.  Our primary goal at IBE is to work together with you to achieve your goals and objectives. You can visit IBE electronics for additional content and details. Our comprehensive understanding of PCBA guarantees that we will competently fulfill your demands. Please contact us, and we’ll make sure you receive the most assistance. Prepreg is the basic dielectric component of multilayer PCBs, providing mechanical robustness and electrical isolation of the conducting layers. The PCB’s thermal, electrical, and reliability performance is determined by the makeup of the prepreg, which consists of resin, fabric reinforcement, and fillers. PCB manufacturers can choose the best prepreg material for their process compatibility and performance needs from a variety of prepreg kinds. Strict prepreg handling procedures and quality control methods also reduce variability and guarantee reliable outcomes during PCB construction. Enabling PCB downsizing and dependability requires careful engineering of the prepreg materials as they work at higher frequencies and temperatures and get thinner.

PCB Runner engineering helps industry design layout engineers to propose the working Stack up based on their base material requirements. Do reach out to our team for any questions about stackups & materials at or


PCB Panel Design Tips – A Complete Guide

A PCB panel, which is often referred to as a PCB array, is a single board made up of several separate boards. During the breakout process, the constructed panel is disassembled, or depanelized, into the constituent PCBs. Defects are reduced as a result of printed circuit board penalization since automated assembly machines typically have fewer issues during assembly.

 PCB panel design tips

Furthermore, penalization lowers costs by increasing throughout boards. Several design parameters, particularly those pertaining to penalization techniques, are necessary for PCB penalization to be successful. In this collection of penalization rules, we’ll go into further detail about different PCB panel technologies and their particular requirements.

Optimizing for Fabrication: Considerations for Penalization Success

There are several penalization techniques, each with advantages and disadvantages of its own. Which penalization technique is most appropriate for a given application can frequently depend a lot on the layout of the board design and the PCB panel itself. Among these, the following stand out:

Design: The board’s design has the biggest influence on whether penalization technique is best. Certain methods may be far less appropriate than others depending on the clearance between components and the board edge and whether or not there are any edge-hanging or right-angle components.